Archeology has a long history before coming to be known as a field of science it is well-recognized as today. And as is the case with other fields of study, there is nothing simple about archeology, especially because it is a study of human history based on empirical evidences. The role of the father of archeology may be attributed to Flavio Biondo but the first to ever develop archeological methods would be William Cunnington. He conducted excavations in the area of Wiltshire around 1798, a project funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Meticulous recordings of the barrows from Neolithic and Bronze Age were made by Cunnington. In those records were terms Cunnington used to describe and categorize his findings, all of which are still used until today by archeologists all around the world. Stratigraphy is a concept in archeology that is also one of the biggest achievements in the area. Developed in the 19th century, stratigraphy is an idea that dictates that each overlapping strata traces back to successive periods, a concept clearly borrowed from geology and paleontology. The concept was first applied to field of archeology when prehistoric and Bronze Age sites were excavated. During the 19th century’s third and fourth decades, notable archeologists such as Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jurgensen Thomsen put the artifacts they found in chronological order.
The emergence of archeology as a firmer form of science was pioneered by Augustus Pitt Rivers, an army officer and an ethnologist. He conducted excavations in the 1880s in England. By the standards of the time, his approach was methodical, earning him the title of judi online the first scientific archeologist. His method consisted of arranging artifacts in either by type (typologically) or by date (chronologically). This design was aimed at noting the changes in evolutionary trends and it impacted tremendously the way archeologists date their findings.
The title of the father of archeology can also be attributed to William Flinders Petrie. Many ideas that serve as the ground basis of modern archeological recording stem from Petrie’s painstaking method of recording and studying artifacts he found in Egypt and Palestine. Petrie’s approach was noted for its focus on using findings such as ceramics and potteries to better date layers, a method which revolutionized Egyptology’s chronological basis. Petrie was the first to investigate the Great Pyramid scientifically and mentoring a slew of the next Egyptologists such as Howard Carter. Carter would then go on to discover the tomb of Tutankhamun, the 14th century BC pharaoh.